Grammatik

V n by n

V n by n

The verb is followed by a noun group and a prepositional phrase which consists of by and a noun group. With some verbs, the preposition is sometimes followed by an '-ing' clause.This pattern has one structure:
    Verb with Object and Adjunct
    He began the day by taking a cool shower.
The passive pattern be V-ed by n is dealt with in this section when it is a genuine passive of a V n by n structure. Note, however, that be V-ed by n may also be the passive of V n (see Chapter 1, Section 2, Other related patterns).Active voice: V n by n/-ing
 Verb groupnoun groupbynoun group/-ing clause
SubjectVerbObjectAdjunct
Hebeganthe daybylaying a wreath at the National Memorial.
Hegrabbedherbythe shoulders.
Passive voice: be V-ed by n
 Verb groupbynoun group
SubjectVerbAdjunct
Even first-time visitorswere calledbytheir first names.
The pain of the coldhad been replacedbyhunger.
Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:
The 'begin' and 'end' groupThe 'grab' groupThe 'call' groupThe 'raise' and 'lower' groupVerbs with other meaningsStructure informationProductive uses

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