Grammar Patterns

Auxiliaries

AUX -ed

The auxiliary verb is followed by the '-ed' form of another verb. The auxiliary and the other verb together form the verb group.
 Auxiliary verb-ed form
SubjectVerbCompletive
Theywereeatenby rats.
Wegotmarriedin September.
Hehasfinishedhis work.
This pattern has four uses.
1 The auxiliaries be and get are used with this pattern to form the passive. Be is used much more frequently in this pattern than get.
Doctors believe more research is needed into the spread of the disease.
No suspects have been picked up yet by police.
'Did I get you into trouble?' she asked. He laughed. 'No. I got teased a bit,' he added.
2 The auxiliary have is used with this pattern to form perfect tenses.
Mount Pinatubo has blanketed the countryside with volcanic ash, up to half a meter deep.
Jupe picked one of the magazines up and leafed through it. Someone had inserted a slip of paper halfway through to mark a place.
Having established his business in San Francisco in the 1960s, he travelled to England with the simple objective of catching up with contemporary British design.
The verb have is also used with the '-ed' form of the auxiliary be to form perfect continuous tenses. This pattern is AUX been -ing.
The council has been accepting dozens of parking levies from developers in different parts of the city..
4 The auxiliary get is used with this pattern, but without making a passive, to indicate that an action, usually something difficult, is successfully achieved. This is an informal use.
He spoke in a hasty, nervous way, as if once he had got started he was afraid that he might be interrupted.
Until I get warmed up it's difficult to run and there's pain.
5 The to-infinitive form of the auxiliary verb be is used with this pattern, usually followed by found, heard, or seen to indicate that people can find, hear, or see something somewhere.
Most of his works are to be found in the area around Arezzo.
There's hardly a tree to be seen.

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