Grammar Patterns

by N

by N

The noun comes in a noun group after the preposition by. In most cases, the noun group has no determiner.
byNoun group
byboat
bychoice
byinstinct
Note that many nouns with this pattern are count nouns or singular nouns which are normally preceded by a determiner. In this pattern, however, they have no determiner.Nouns with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:
The 'car', 'air', and 'rail' groupsThe 'mail' groupThe 'cheque' groupThe 'machine' groupThe 'force' groupThe 'ballot' groupThe 'auction' groupThe 'rote' groupThe 'injection' groupThe 'drowning' groupThe 'chance' and 'design' groupThe 'nature' groupThe 'law' groupThe 'decree' groupThe 'agreement' groupThe 'candlelight' groupThe 'comparison' groupThe 'bucketful' groupNouns with other meaningsOther productive uses

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