Patterns with reflexive pronouns
Patterns with reflexive pronounsWith many ergative verbs, the noun group following the verb is sometimes a reflexive pronoun. When this is the case, the 'doer' and the 'causer' are the same person or thing. Sometimes this means that there is little difference in meaning between this pattern and the pattern which mentions only the 'doer'. For example, the first two examples below mean almost the same thing, although they have different patterns, but the third example has a different meaning.
Sometimes, however, the pattern with a reflexive pronoun emphasizes that the Subject of that pattern is the cause of an event and also the person or thing that is affected by it. This is true particularly when the verb involved indicates that a person suffers harm. For example, the first example below suggests that the drowning was an accident, the second example suggests that it was suicide, and the third example suggests that it was murder.
The symptoms of the illness manifested ten days later.
The symptoms of the illness manifested themselves ten days later.
She manifested all the symptoms of the illness.
He drowned in the river.
He drowned himself in the river.
She drowned him in the river.
The following verbs often have a reflexive pronoun following the verb.
acclimatize assimilate attach beach disengage drown hang manifest overstretch plunge resolve