Grammar Patterns

V from n

Structure I: Verbs in phase

 Verb groupfrom-ing
SubjectVerbCompletive
Finneydoes not flinchfromportrayingthe cruelty of this period.
Hehas not shrunkfromfacingthe challenges.
These verbs are concerned with not doing something.
The incident occurred in the late seventies, but I shall refrain from naming the school involved.
Sometimes we shrink from making decisions, not out of fear but from sheer confusion.
So far police and riot troops have shied away from using physical force to break the strikers.
  • abstain
  • desist
  • flinch
  • forbear
  • keep
  • recoil
  • refrain
  • retire
  • retreat
  • shirk
  • shrink
  • withdraw
  • shy away
  • When the preposition from is followed by a noun group, these verbs have Structure II (see meaning group II.8).

    Structure information: Verbs in phase

    The verb is followed by the preposition from and the '-ing'form of another verb. The verbs are in phase, and together form a complex verb group. This means that the actions or states expressed by the two verbs cannot be separated from each other. For example, if you refrain from saying something, the refraining and the not saying are not two processes, but one. The complex verb group is followed by a group, phrase, or clause which completes the pattern of the second verb. In the structure table above, this is called a Completive. For example, if the second verb is normally followed by a noun group, then the Completive of the complex verb group will be a noun group. This structure has no passive. There is one phrasal verb with this structure, shy away. This pattern is V P from -ing.

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