V n by n
The 'raise' and 'lower' groupThese verbs are concerned with:
raising or lowering a number or value by a particular amount e.g. cut, devalue
multiplying or dividing a number or amount by another number e.g. multiply, divide
The noun group following the preposition is always an amount, and the pattern is V n by amount.
cut devalue divide lift lower multiply raise
The Irish government was forced to devalue its pound by 10 percent within the European exchange-rate mechanism.
The bank provides customers with a chart to estimate their year's bills and divide the total by twelve.
The eruption produced so much ash scientists believe it counteracted the greenhouse effect and lowered temperatures by one to two degrees worldwide.
Many resort town employers have raised salaries by 35 to 50 percent in the past year in an effort to attract needed help.