Grammar Patterns

V n to n

III.19 Verbs with other meanings

There are a number of other verbs which have this structure.
Gently apply the cream to the affected areas.
Under the blueprint to be implemented from October, the area around the famous monuments will be barred to all tourist vehicles.
I had to decide very quickly what was significant and commit it to paper.
The guidebooks she checked devoted a paragraph or two to the subject.
What have they done to Sam's hair?
At worst, wearing a helmet may expose cyclists to greater danger, says Doctor Hillman.
I'm going to hold you to your promise, so don't you forget.
This is not the first time the work of the grand jury has become public, even though members are sworn to secrecy about the proceedings.
In the case of draw up, help, lower, and treat, the noun group following the verb is always or often a reflexive pronoun. This pattern is V pron-refl P to n, or in the case of draw up, V pron-refl to n.
He drew himself up to his full height.
Do help yourself to another drink.
In the case of leave, the noun group following the preposition is often a reflexive pronoun. This pattern is V n to pron-refl.
The giant panda is never left to himself. People keep making him get on jets and meet eligible young females.
In the case of leave and mean, the noun group following the verb is often or always an amount. This pattern is V amount to n.
Our mothers' approval means a lot to us.
  • apply
  • bar (usu passive)
  • beat
  • be born
  • commit
  • date
  • devote
  • do
  • expose
  • help
  • hold
  • introduce
  • leave
  • (not) lower
  • get married
  • mean
  • mould
  • pip
  • refer
  • sacrifice
  • stretch (usu passive)
  • swear (usu passive)
  • tailor
  • trace
  • transfer
  • treat
  • draw up
  • hold up (usu passive)
  • make up
  • open up
  • pin down
  • trace back
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