Grammar Patterns

without N

The 'reference' group

These nouns are used to indicate that someone does not do, use, or consider something.
We have to be able to achieve our ends without recourse to violence or manipulation if we are to be part of a community.
Although the story can be read without reference to the notes, only a knowledgeable reader would fully appreciate it.
  • without recourse to ...
  • without reference to ...
  • without regard to ...
  • without resort to ...
  • without a backward/second glance
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