V n -ing

Structure III: Verb with Object and Adjunct

Active voice: V n -ing
 Verb groupnoun group-ing clause
The two familiesendedthe daydevouring pizzas and hamburgers.
The driverkilledtimecircling the area.
Passive voice: be V-ed -ing
 Verb group-ing clause
Nightswere passednursing horrible sunburns.
A lot of timewas spenttalking on the phone.
Verbs with this structure are all concerned with passing time in a particular way, or starting or ending a period of time in a particular way. Spend and waste are also concerned with ways of spending or wasting money.
Harry passed the time watching the waitresses as they glided discreetly around the tables.
The team started the day knowing a win would put them in second place.
In the case of busy and occupy, the noun group is always a reflexive pronoun. This pattern is V pron-refl -ing.
He busied himself rinsing the washcloth.
  • begin
  • busy
  • end
  • finish
  • kill
  • occupy
  • pass
  • spend
  • start
  • take
  • waste
  • Structure information: Verb with Object and Adjunct

    The noun group is the Object, and the '-ing' clause is an Adjunct. Some of the verbs with this structure have a passive, with the pattern be V-ed -ing. The '-ing' clause is an Adjunct. The verbs that are used in the passive are pass, spend, and waste.

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