Grammatica

V against n

V against n

The verb is followed by a prepositional phrase which consists of against and a noun group. With some verbs, the preposition is sometimes followed by an '-ing' clause. The passive pattern is be V-ed against.This pattern has one structure:
    Verb with prepositional Object
    Thousands of people demonstrated against the tax.
Active voice: V against n/-ing
 Verb groupagainstnoun group/-ing clause
SubjectVerbprepositional Object
Hecampaignedagainstarranged marriages.
You're competingagainstyounger workers.
Theyhave decidedagainstboycotting the referendum.
Their bulletsslammedagainstthe fuselage.
Passive voice: be V-ed against
 Verb groupagainst
SubjectVerbPrepositionAdjunct (optional)
Theyare discriminatedagainstby their employers.
Phrasal verbs: V P against n/-ing
 Verb groupParticleagainstnoun group/ing clause
SubjectVerbprepositional Object
Several countrieshave comeoutagainstholding official celebrations.
Hehas foughtbackagainstthe hardliners.
Helashedoutagainstthe proposal.
Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:
The 'compete' groupThe 'campaign' groupThe 'preach' groupThe 'bump' groupThe 'insure' groupThe 'offend' groupVerbs with other meaningsStructure information

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