How to form adverbs - Easy Learning Grammar Italian
1 The basics
- In English you can make an adverb from the adjective slow by adding –ly. You can do a similar kind of thing in Italian.
- Here are some guidelines:
- if the adjective ends in –o in the masculine, take the feminine form, ending in –a, and add –mente
|Masculine adjective||Feminine adjective||Adverb||Meaning|
|Cammina molto lentamente.||He walks very slowly.|
|Fortunatamente non ha piovuto.||Luckily, it didn’t rain.|
- if the adjective ends in –e for both masculine and feminine, just add –mente
|Parla correntemente l’italiano.||She speaks Italian fluently.|
- if the adjective ends in –le, or –re, you drop the final e before adding –mente
|Puoi farlo facilmente.||You can easily do it.|
|Non è particolarmente buono.||It’s not particularly nice.|
TipDon’t try to make adverbs agree with anything – they always keep the same form.
2 Irregular adverbs
- In Italian there are two kinds of adverbs which do not behave in the way just described. They are:
- adverbs which are completely different from the adjective
- adverbs which are exactly the same as the masculine adjective
- The adverb related to buono (meaning good) is bene (meaning well). The adverb related to cattivo (meaning bad) is male (meaning badly).
|Parlano bene l’italiano.||They speak Italian well.|
|Ho giocato male.||I played badly.|
- Words such as fast and hard can be both adjectives and adverbs:
- a fast car
- You’re driving too fast.
- a hard question
- He works very hard.
- The same kind of thing happens in Italian: some adverbs are the same as the masculine adjective. The following are the most common ones:
- chiaro (adjective: clear; adverb: clearly)
|Il significato è chiar0.||The meaning is clear.|
|Giulia parla chiaro.||Giulia speaks clearly.|
- giusto (adjective: right, correct; adverb: correctly, right)
|il momento giust0.||the right moment.|
|Marco ha risposto giusto.||Marco answered correctly.|
- vicino (adjective: near, close; adverb: nearby, near here)
|È molto vicino.||He’s very close.|
|I miei amici abitano vicino.||My friends live nearby.|
|C’è una piscina vicino?||Is there a swimming pool near here?|
- diritto (adjective: straight; adverb: straight on)
|Il bordo non è diritto.||The edge is not straight.|
|Siamo andati sempre diritto.||We kept straight on.|
- certo (adjective: sure, certain; adverb: of course)
|Non ne sono certo.||I’m not sure.|
|Vieni stasera? – Certo!||Are you coming this evening? |
– Of course!
- solo (adjective: alone, lonely; adverb: only)
|Si sente solo.||He feels lonely.|
|L’ho incontrata solo due volte.||I’ve only met her twice.|
- forte (adjective: strong, hard; adverb: fast, hard)
|È più forte di me.||He’s stronger than me.|
|Correva forte.||He was running fast.|
- molto (adjective: a lot of; adverb: a lot, very, very much)
|Non hanno molto denaro.||They haven’t got a lot of money.|
|Quel quadro mi piace molto.||I like that picture a lot.|
- poco (adjective: little, not very much; adverb not very much, not very)
|Hai mangiato poco riso.||You haven’t eaten very much rice.|
|Viene in ufficio poco spesso.||She doesn’t come to the office very often.|
- Note that although these adverbs look like adjectives, they NEVER change their form.
- You generally make adverbs by adding –mente to adjectives.
- Adverbs never agree with anything.
- Some adverbs have the same form as the masculine adjective.