Grammar Patterns

(i) 'Doer' and 'causer' are both animate

(i) 'Doer' and 'causer' are both animate

Where the 'doer' and the 'causer' are both animate and the action is something that is under the control of the 'doer', the exact roles of the 'doer' and the 'causer' vary according to the verb.The 'causer' may be someone in authority who orders or encourages the 'doer' to do the action.
The horse galloped down the hill.
The rider galloped his horse down the hill.
The squad marched down the hill.
The sergeant marched the squad down the hill.
The 'causer' may provide conditions that allow the 'doer' to do the action.
The cows grazed in the water meadows.
The farmer grazed the cows in the water meadows.
The 'doer' and the 'causer' may both be involved in the action, with different responsibilities.
She auditioned on Tuesday.
I auditioned her on Tuesday.
He enrolled on a two-year course.
The tutor enrolled him on a two-year course.

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