Grammar Patterns

V by -ing

V by -ing

The verb is followed by a prepositional phrase which consists of the preposition by and an '-ing' clause.This pattern has one structure:
    Verb with Adjunct
    They responded by ordering him to go home.
V by -ing
 Verb groupby-ing clause
SubjectVerbAdjunct
Shebeganbytelling me what the exhibition was about.
The fansretaliatedbypelting them with plastic chairs.
Phrasal verbs: V P by -ing
 Verb groupParticleby-ing clause
SubjectVerbAdjunct
All of themstartedoutbydefying a long-established authority.
Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:
The 'start' and 'finish' groupThe 'reciprocate' groupVerbs with other meaningsStructure informationOther related patterns

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