Grammar Patterns

V n by n

V n by n

The verb is followed by a noun group and a prepositional phrase which consists of by and a noun group. With some verbs, the preposition is sometimes followed by an '-ing' clause.This pattern has one structure:
    Verb with Object and Adjunct
    He began the day by taking a cool shower.
The passive pattern be V-ed by n is dealt with in this section when it is a genuine passive of a V n by n structure. Note, however, that be V-ed by n may also be the passive of V n (see Chapter 1, Section 2, Other related patterns).Active voice: V n by n/-ing
 Verb groupnoun groupbynoun group/-ing clause
SubjectVerbObjectAdjunct
Hebeganthe daybylaying a wreath at the National Memorial.
Hegrabbedherbythe shoulders.
Passive voice: be V-ed by n
 Verb groupbynoun group
SubjectVerbAdjunct
Even first-time visitorswere calledbytheir first names.
The pain of the coldhad been replacedbyhunger.
Verbs with this pattern belong to the following meaning groups:
The 'begin' and 'end' groupThe 'grab' groupThe 'call' groupThe 'raise' and 'lower' groupVerbs with other meaningsStructure informationProductive uses

See related content

NEW from Collins!
NEW from Collins!
English Word Lists
English Word Lists
Latest Word Submissions
Latest Word Submissions
Easy Learning English Grammar
Easy Learning English Grammar
COBUILD Grammar Patterns
COBUILD Grammar Patterns
Word Lover's Blog
Word Lover's Blog
Online Scrabble Checker
Online Scrabble Checker
The Paul Noble Method
The Paul Noble Method
Create an account and sign in to access this FREE content
Register now or login in to access