Grammar Patterns

V n to-inf

II.8 The 'believe' group

These verbs are concerned with thinking, saying, or showing something. Some of these verbs, such as prove and show, sometimes have inanimate Subjects. The verb that most frequently occurs in the to-infinitive clause is be.
The verb see, which occurs in this pattern only in the passive, has a corresponding active pattern, V n inf (see Section 5 below). The other verbs which are passive with this meaning do not have this other pattern.
The French government was believed to be planning to send transport helicopters to work alongside the Germans.
Once the powerful "pastors" of these churches declare a child to be possessed by demons, it opens the door to abuse and even death.
If the defendant is as intelligent as I judge him to be, by now he'll have had to realize where our questions were leading.
He distrusted human reason, knew it to be fallible.
The buyer was presumed to be Japanese because telephone bids were negotiated by a Japanese member of staff.
Islands are seen to offer solitude, relaxation and a safe retreat, a womb of security.
She left the course by ambulance and was thought to have suffered a neck injury.
In the case of prove, the noun group is sometimes a reflexive pronoun. This pattern is V pron-refl to-inf.
Yeltsin proved himself to be a highly skilled politician.
  • acknowledge
  • adjudge (usu passive)
  • allege (usu passive)
  • assume (usu passive)
  • believe
  • consider
  • declare
  • deem (usu passive)
  • discover (usu passive)
  • feel
  • find
  • judge
  • know
  • presume (usu passive)
  • prove
  • reckon (usu passive)
  • report (usu passive)
  • be reputed
  • be rumoured
  • be said
  • be seen
  • show (usu passive)
  • take
  • think
  • think (usu passive)
  • understand (usu passive)
  • make out
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