What is a demonstrative adjective?
Demonstrative adjectives - Easy Learning Grammar Spanish
A demonstrative adjective is one of the words this, that, these and those used with a noun in English to point out a particular thing or person, for example, this woman, that dog.
1 Using demonstrative adjectives
- Just as in English, Spanish demonstrative adjectives go BEFORE the noun. Like other adjectives in Spanish, they have to change for the feminine and plural forms.
that (close by)
that (further away)
those (close by)
those (further away)
- Use este/esta/estos/estas (meaning this/these) to talk about things and people that are near you.
|Este bolígrafo no escribe.||This pen isn’t working.|
|Me he comprado estos libros.||I’ve bought these books.|
- Use ese/esa/esos/esas and aquel/aquella/aquellos/aquellas (meaning that/those) to talk about things that are further away.
|Esa revista es muy mala.||That magazine is very bad.|
|¿Conoces a esos señores?||Do you know those gentlemen?|
|No le gusta aquella muñeca.||She doesn’t like that doll.|
|Siga usted hasta aquellos árboles.||Carry on until you reach those trees (over there).|
2 ese or aquel?
- In English we use that and those to talk about anything that is not close by, but in Spanish you need to be a bit more precise.
- Use ese/esa/esos/esas:
- to talk about things and people that are nearer to the person you are talking to than to you
|ese papel en el que escribes||that paper you’re writing on|
|¿Por qué te has puesto esas medias?||Why are you wearing those tights?|
- to talk about things and people that aren’t very far away
|No me gustan esos cuadros.||I don’t like those pictures.|
- Use aquel/aquella/aquellos/aquellas to talk about things that are further away
|Me gusta más aquella mesa.||I prefer that table (over there).|
Grammar Extra!You should use ese/esa/esos/esas when you are talking about a definite date, month or year.
You should use aquel/aquella/aquellos/aquellas when you are talking about something in the past and not mentioning a definite date.
|¿1999? No me acuerdo de dónde pasamos las vacaciones ese año.||1999? I can’t remember where we went on holiday that year.|
|aquellas vacaciones que pasamos en Francia||those holidays we had in France|
- this + noun = este/esta + noun
- these + noun = estos/estas + noun
- that + noun = ese/esa + noun (when the object is not far away from you or the person you’re talking to)
- that + noun = aquel/aquella + noun (when the object is more distant)
- those + noun = esos/esas + noun (when the objects are not far away from you or the person you’re talking to)
- those + noun = aquellos/aquellas + noun (when the objects are more distant)