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The forms of main verbs - Easy Learning Grammar

English verbs have up to five different forms. These are:
1the base form, e.g.pull
2the 3rd person singular, present simple tense, e.g.pulls
3the past simple tense, e.g.pulled
4the past participle, e.g.pulled
5the present participle, e.g.pulling
  • Regular verbs are all formed in the same way, by building on the base form (form 1). This is the form you normally find in a dictionary. Most verbs are regular.
  • Irregular verbs have different forms, particularly forms 3 and 4. See Irregular verbs.
Form 1:The present simple tense has all but one of its forms the same as the base form.
Form 2:When the present simple tense has a 3rd person singular subject, the verb is formed from the base form + -s.
Form 3:The past simple is formed from the base form + -ed.
Form 4:The past participle is formed from the base form + -ed.
Form 5:The present participle is formed from the base form + -ing.
A special variation of the base form is the to infinitive. There are a number of uses of a verb where both the words to + the base form must be present.
The base form is sometimes called the ‘bare infinitive’.
As mentioned above, the 3rd person singular is formed from the base form + -s. Below are the exceptions to the rule:Verbs ending in -o, -ch, -sh, -ss, -x, -z or -zz: add -es to make the 3rd person singular, e.g.
torpedohe torpedoes
catchhe catches
tosshe tosses
pushhe pushes
misshe misses
boxhe boxes
buzzit buzzes
Verbs ending in -y after a consonant: change y to i and add -es, e.g.
carryhe carries
flyhe flies
worryhe worries
As mentioned above, the present participle is made up of the base form + -ing. There are some exceptions to the rule. All verbs that contain a short final vowel in front of a final consonant double the consonant before -ing, e.g.
sobsobbing
bidbidding
flogflogging
runrunning
stopstopping
getgetting
putputting

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